Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Dorcoceras hygrometricum
ZF-HD Family
Species TF ID Description
KZV14406.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV18373.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV19024.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV19025.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV20180.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV23314.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV35490.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV35611.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV48186.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV48944.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV50186.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV50187.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV53769.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV53864.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV54596.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV54599.1ZF-HD family protein
KZV56136.1ZF-HD family protein
ZF-HD Family Introduction

This group of sequences described by a 54-residue domain found in the N-terminal region of plant proteins, the vast majority of which contain a ZF-HD class homeobox domain toward the C terminus. The region between the two domains typically is rich in low complexity sequence. The companion ZF-HD homeobox domain is described in INTERPRO:IPR006455.

A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Windhovel A, Hein I, Dabrowa R, Stockhaus J.
Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia.
Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Jan;45(2):201-14.
PMID: 11289511